Deadline licensing only takes into account the first two parts of the version number. If your currently licensed for Deadline 10.0.X.X, you would need a new license for 10.1.X.X. However, upgrading from 10.1.2.2 to 10.1.3.6 you wouldn't need a new license.
As of version 10.1.23 Deadline no longer requires a license to render. If you've got any questions about how Thinkbox products are now free of charge please take a look at this AWS Media Blog.
For more information, check Deadline Licensing.